You can start out with a '____ for Dummies' book, many of which are good for giving you a quick introduction of the most notable points. You can start with something generic, like 'Programming for Dummies,' or something more specific, like 'Java for Dummies.'
Some quick points:
1.) The amount of math depends on the type of program you're creating. A FPS game, for instance, includes a significant amount whereas a note-taker contains a minimal amount.
2.) C/C++ are considered harder to learn than, say, C# or Java as the language itself does less for you. (The meaning of that will become clear down the road.)
3.) The language of choice depends largely on what type of programs you want to create and where you want to run them. (Ex: C# is great if you're customizing Windows while Java's great is you want a program that works on most devices.)
4.) Python was designed as a language for beginners, so it is a good place to start, but Java's a classic starting point for college-level programming courses.
Hope this helps,