Close focus or Macro focus.
All lenses are rated as to how close they can focus (lets say 18 inches).
Lenses capable of macro focus can also focus from 18 inches down.
Just about all point and shoot cameras have a micro focus setting.
Cameras with changeable lenses have special lenses for Macro shooting.
Here is a look at Canon lenses.
There are very few lenses that can shoot macro and they are relatively expensive.