After all this.
Why not order the restore media for this laptop? Around here it's about 35 bucks and it sounds as if you put more than that into some driver POC.
If the restore media fails, that means the hardware has some issue.
OR ... you left some USB thing plugged in ... OR ... something's not stock ... OR ... there is a real hardware fault.
Last idea? Your new HDD is not plugged in to SATA PORT 0 (zero.)