In short the answer to your last question is no.
But let's define "them." Them is defined as multiple people.
Way back back in Windows 95/98/Me Outlook Express had a feature called Identities to do something that has left folk asking for what you appear to be asking for. So let's give an example.
But first you write "my mail into the different email accounts" so all those are addressed to you so there is no more to discuss. HOWEVER.
If you did have multiple users and let's call them Tom and Sally that share a PC the old Outlook Express with it's identity feature would allow Tom and Sally to use the same Windows user account yet get their own email.
-> Today we create a Windows (that's the operating system) account for Tom and Sally and they log into Windows (the OS) in their account and each will get their own email.