That cable should not work.
And you proved it again. What does work are those VGA to NTSC/PAL video convertors for the about 99 buck range. Folk want it to be just a cable at a few bucks but again, you proved they don't work under most systems and cards.
The display on the old TV will also be unusable for most things. I suggest you give it up while you are not out a lot of bucks.