Answer Best answer as chosen by user lllAlilll
To answer your question as best as one can
all software and hardware involved in the path from point a to point b.
Software more commonly seen software would include dns lookup, error correction protocols, security software [firewall, proxy, VPN, etc..] and the protocol itself http versus ftp versus gopher, versus, whatever else is out there and tcp or udp, etc..] It would take years to learn every single way ping is effected on just your providers network alone, that does not include the actual internet. A better way to go about this is to trouble shoot the things that can be controlled on your end.
That said the more common problems are improperly set up firewall on your end, computer on your end overloaded on CPU usage, loose or damage cables somewhere [phone or coax, ethernet], etc..
Some services are slower [higher ping] than others ie dial up you used to be lucky to pull 300ms ping times, now people want 3 off their fiber/cable and its not realistic in most cases.
What service do you have for internet?
What are these awful ping times you seem to have?
What application is showing you them?
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