Answer Best answer as chosen by user norwichmuscles
How, without your permission?
But you do give your permission. If you are using a computer that is internet capable and open your browser to visit web sites, that is your permission.
Some of those you list may not be accessible; when the OS was installed perhaps, and the serial number, (if you mean the Product Key for the OS), but the rest? here are just a few reasons.
IP address. That is like the postal address of where you live. If someone sending you letters didn't have your postal address, then you wouldn't get the letter. If the web site you are browsing doesn't know your IP address, then it cannot send data to your browser.
Cookies. Most web sites install cookie son to your system when you visit them. Most cookies are mild and harmless and may be required for future visits. For example if you return to CNET to reply to posts, you don't have to log in each time to do that because of the cookies CNET has installed.
Browser type and version. You didn't mention that but many web sites can tell what browser you are using and which version. They need to know because different browsers render web site HTML code differently, as do different versions of the same browser.
Not all that you list is sent over the internet, but it is interesting how much can be told. This is interesting reading;
And here is a little test for your browser; http://panopticlick.eff.org/
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