There is no safety measure within the BIOS to help shutdown the PC if the "south/northbridge chipset is exposed due to heat rising. It failed and more than likely was running before you noticed the heatsink falling off. Further, your actual cpu heatsink with all its dust present allows me to assume, you used the PC until it failed or close to it. Returning the heatsink may not work as this was "glued-on" in order to best operate as I see no latching mechanism to keep it there. It looks too late to help this mtrbd., though you can play all you want otherwise. Since, that exposed IC is now probably failed and not socketed, no fix cheaply other than to replace the mtrbd.. Also, quite possibly the metal of the heatsink may have touched some electrical contact and caused other damage to seal it's fate. It's not seeing the required chipset and that's a change it can't recover from even though it appears to be booting, that lost IC from the failed component is too much and no card can be installed to continue on that I know of.
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