Click "Start" --> Right click "Computer" --> Left Click "Manage" --> Click "Disk Management"
Look at "Disk 0". How many partitions does it show?
Normally, a clean install of Windows 7 on a bare drive will have 2 partitions: a "System Reserved" partition with no drive letter assigned and then a "C:" partition filling the rest of the space.
In your case, you are hoping to see 2 or 3 partitions: you may or may not have the "System Reserved" partition (basically 100 meg in size); the C: partition; and hopefully an additional partition to the right of the C:.
If you do not have a partition to the right of the C:, most likely you accidentally repartitioned the drive when you reinstalled windows, deleting the backup partition you created and all the data you stored there. The odds are not good of recovering the data at this point.
If you DO have a partition to the right of the C: partition, then you should be safe. Does it have a drive letter assigned? Also, what is its status? Is it a Primary partition? That may well be the problem. You can only see one primary partition at a time. If you do have this extra partition and it does not have a drive letter, try Right clicking on the partition. Does it offer the option to "Change Drive Letter or Path"? If not, I expect your best bet will be to take this drive and attach it to another machine as a slave so it is not booting from the C: partition. Then, using the same Computer Management app (Start --> Right click "Manage"), assign this partition a drive letter and then copy the files off of it to the second computer. Once you have copied all of your files from the partition, within the Disk Management, Right Click and delete this volume.
If you were to use a command line FDisk-type utility, you would have to create an Extended partition and then create a Logical partition within the Extended partition. I believe that the DiskManagement Wizard does this automatically when you create a "New Simple Volume". On the now unallocated space, Right-Click and choose "New Simple Volume". Follow the rest of the wizard. Most likely you want to use all the free space, format NTFS, give the volume some name (like "Data") and assign a drive letter (like D:). Once formatted, it will get a drive letter. You should then be able to copy the files back onto the new simple/logical partition, put your drive back into the original machine, boot as normal, and you should now have a D: drive with your files as you wanted them.
Alternatively, you could, after copying the files from to the temporary machine and deleting the partition, you could extend the C: partition of the drive to fill the unallocated space, making it one partition again, and then copy the files back to the drive in their original places.
Let us know what you find using DiskManagement (also accessible by entering diskmgmt.msc in the "Run" window.)
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