If that's a retail DVD...
The appropriate files are stored in the install.wim file in the Sources folder. The WIM file is much like an ISO, and the contents are extracted during Vista's installation. It is possible to mount the file/extract the contents, but it's doubtful that copying out that one file would resolve the problem. And, unlike Windows XP, Vista does not feature a repair installation option for such occasions. Thus, when SFC fails there's not much recourse.
1.) If you have a manufacturer's system recovery system which offers a non-destructive repair option you can still reinstall Vista without losing your files/settings/programs.
2.) If you have a retail copy of Vista you can run System Restore from the DVD by going through the Repair my computer option instead of choosing Install Now. Using System Restore that way now may enable you to go back to a time while System Restore was still properly installed on your computer.
3.) You can try pressing F8 during boot and choosing the 'Last known good configuration' option, if such is available.
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